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You Want to Work as a Caregiver in Israel?
“…the way humans readily project their emotions and intentions into some animals and not others is itself a cause for concern. Few people have much fellow feeling for fish even though many fish are long-lived, have complicated nervous systems and are capable of learning complicated tasks.”
—Professor Patrick Bateson
Professor of Ethology
University of Cambridge
From salmon making the long journey from river to ocean and back, to goldfish swimming circles around a small pond, the inner lives of fishes are a mystery that scientists are only beginning to unravel. One of the key elements they are searching for is the extent to which each fish is sentient or, more specifically, how they process what we would call a “painful” sensation (such as a hook cutting into their lip.)
On this journey, scientists have discovered that fish have nerve structures that are anatomically very similar to those of humans and many other species of animals. Among these common structures are receptor cells called nociceptors, which are found throughout animals’ bodies and are activated by stimuli expected to cause damage to bodily tissues. Tellingly, some species of fish have upwards of 58 different nociceptors located in their lips alone*.
As in human anatomy, these nociceptors are wired by nerve fibers to the central nervous system (the spinal cord and brain.) When the pain centers in the brain are activated by signals from the nociceptors, they trigger the body to respond to the potentially harmful or life threatening events that may be happening.
Fish anatomy is so complex that they have even evolved the same “pain-blocking” substances (endorphins) as humans.** It is theorized that endorphins help animals to tolerate pain from severe injuries in order to help them escape from a predator. This leaves us with the question: Why would fish have endorphins in their bodies if they couldn’t feel pain? And why is there still a debate over their sentience?
* Physiologist Lynne Sneddon discovered 58 different nociceptor sites in rainbow trout lips.** Endorphins are akin to naturally occurring morphine, although their role in the body is more complex. It is also worth mentioning that some analgesic drugs used by humans also appear to reduce pain in fish.
In the scientific world the line between simply reacting to negative stimuli and “feeling pain” is marked by the capacity to process and express emotions.
“Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage.”
- The International Association for the Study of Pain
Original link to Johnny Cash's blog! Investment Plan for cashout 300.000 dollars in 3 years. Magic number! English reader!
Ne vorbeşte Johnny Cash în româneşte
Rezumat la Postările Următoare Indiferent de alegerile făcute, aici sunt unele lucruri pe care să vă concentraţi: 1) Fii un Power User 2)Încercaţi roluri diferite
Puteti deveni chiar un Antrenor de Succes/Success Coach - deşi acest rol nu este pentru toata lumea şi este rezervat pentru oamenii care într-adevăr le place să ajute pe alţii. (Asta presupune să-i ajuti pe alţii să câştige, după ce tu ai trecut prin toate fazele şi ai ajuns SC, dar nu este tocmai gratuit, pentru că fie profesorul, fie SC-ul are un procent din castigul fiecarui student pe care i-l dă FanBoxul, nu studenţii.) 3) Fiţi răbdători si iertători Lucrurile bune vin la cei care le aşteaptă.
Rabdarea: Dacă nu puteţi ajuta dar încasaţi câştigurile în fiecare lună ve-ţi câştiga mult mai puţin.
Iertarea: Fanboxul este o organizaţie care, este iadul aplecat în încercarea de a găsi noi modalităţi pentru a-şi ajuta membrii săi - ceea ce înseamnă că în mod constant experimentează cu noi produse şi caracteristici, dintre care multe vor avea nevoie de timp pentru a-şi obţine dreptul şi poate unele dintre ele vor eşua pur şi simplu.
She's a beautiful and charming singer.
5 Foods that give you energy at any time of dayBanana peanut butterYou need a medium banana, sliced, and a tablespoon of peanut butter. The result is a delicious snack and a long-term source.